Grammar

Word Forms English Grammar

by VIDYANAND

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What are Word Forms?

The addition of prefixes and suffixes to words can change their category and function. Some suffixes are used only for nouns, and some are used for verbs. Suffixes can also impart different meanings to words. For example, ‘trainer’ and ‘training’ have the common stem ‘train’, but the suffixes ‘-er’ and ‘-ing’ impart different meanings. 

Word Categories 

NounVerbAdjectiveAdverb
nationnationalisenationalnationally
humanhumanisehumanhumanely/ humanly
beautybeautifybeautifulbeautifully

Suffixes of Nouns

SuffixUsageExamples
-alstaterefusal, betrayal, perusal
-ance, -ence, -ancy, -encyquality or statemilitancy, performance
-tionconditioncondition, relation
-iceconditionmalice, novice, justice
-er/-ordoerpainter, trainer, actor
-graphrecordtelegraph, phonograph, polygraph
-ismbeliefHinduism, communism, fascism
-istdoerpacifist, pianist, altruist
-iansomeone who doesGandhian, guardian, politician
-ingname of an activityreading, gardening, sleeping
-itystatecontinuity, annuity
-logystudygeology, neurology
-shipstate offriendship, kinship, sportsmanship
-sion, -tionprocess ofexpansion, determination, connection
-oryplacedormitory, reformatory, laboratory 
-orium, -ariumplacesanitarium, aquarium, crematorium
-urestatecomposure, exposure, leisure 
-mentstateabandonment, refinement, entertainment
-nessstatehappiness, completeness, fullness

Suffixes of Verbs

SuffixUsageExample
-ingaction in continuationhearing, yearning, making
-ateLatin origin verbsrecreate, abate, mediate
-edsimple past or participle formkilled, toyed, booked
-enverbs formed from adjectivesbroken, frozen, sunken
-fydomagnify, specify, rectify
-s, -essimple present tense formcriticises, runs, laughs
-eractions which have repetitive qualityblabber, snicker, mutter
-ntto doprevent, augment, content
-edto doattend, intend, pretend
-iseto make/dorevolutionise, apologise, despise 
-ishbecome or doflourish, banish, demolish
-ableto make enable, disable

Suffixes of Adjectives

SuffixMeaningUsage
-able, -iblehaving the quality offlexible, available, eatable
-alrelated toventral, global, musical
-antdoingdependent, buoyant, resilient
-ichaving the quality terrific, generic, specific
-esquelike, having the qualitystatuesque, picturesque
-er,-estcomparative   and      superlative qualitiesfatter, tallest
-osefull ofverbose, grandiose
-fulfull ofbeautiful, boastful, grateful
-ingparticiple form of adjectiveinteresting, frustrating, sleeping
-istichaving the qualityrealistic, artistic, surrealistic
-ivehaving the nature ofpensive, aggressive, massive
-ous, -iousfull ofgaseous, spacious, gracious

Suffixes of Adverbs

SuffixMeaningUsage
 -ablywith a qualitycomfortably, admirably, disagreeably
-ibly with a qualityaudibly, horribly, negligibly 
-sshows time or placebackwards, always, forwards
-wiseshows manner or positionclockwise, otherwise, lengthwise

Hints

While changing a word into a noun, add ‘by’ before it for a hint.

Word Noun Form
hostile (adjective)  byhostility
kindly (adverb)kindness
joking (verb)joke

While changing a word into a verb, add ‘to’ before it for a hint.

Word Verb Form
confusion (noun)  toconfuse
regulating (participle)regulate
beautifully (adverb)beautify

While changing a word into an adjective, add ‘being’ before it for a hint.

Word Adjective Form
creation (noun)  beingcreative
excellently (adverb)excellent
freeze (verb)frozen

While changing a word into an adverb, add ‘quite’ before it for a hint or add the suffix ‘-ly’ to it.

Word Adverb Form
management (noun)  quitemanageably
justify (verb)justifiably
political (adjective)politically

Examples:

Word: Tempt (Verb)

Part of SpeechNounAdjectiveAdverb
 temptationtemptingtemptingly
Suffix-ion-ing (participle)-ly

Word: Fail (Verb)

Part of SpeechNounAdjectiveAdverb
 failurefailingfailingly
Suffix-ure-ing (participle)-ly

Word: Sad (Adjective)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdverb
 sadnesssaddensadly
Suffix-ness-en-ly

Word: Confusingly (Adverb)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdjective
 confusionconfuseconfusing
Suffix-sion-se-ing (participle)

Word: Complete (Verb)

Part of SpeechNounAdjectiveAdverb
 completioncompletecompletely
Suffix-ion-ly

Word: Kindness (Noun)

Part of SpeechVerbAdjectiveAdverb
 kindkindly
Suffix-ly

Word: Intentional (Adjective)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdverb
 intentionintendintentionally
Suffix-ion-ly

Word: Preventively (Adverb)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdjective
 preventionpreventpreventive
Suffix-ion-ive

Word: Suggestion (Noun)

Part of SpeechVerbAdjectiveAdverb
 suggestsuggestivesuggestively
Suffix-ive-ly

Word: Admire (Verb)

Part of SpeechNounAdjectiveAdverb
 admirationadmirableadmirably
Suffix-ion-able-ly

Word: Variable (Adjective)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdverb
 variabilityvaryvariably
Suffix-ity-ly

Word: Urgently (Adverb) 

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdjective
 urgencyurgeurgent
Suffix-ency-ent

Word: Energy (Noun)             

Part of SpeechVerbAdjectiveAdverb
 energiseenergeticenergetically
Suffix-ise-ic-ly

Word: Entertain (Verb)

Part of SpeechNounAdjectiveAdverb
 entertainmententertainingentertainingly
Suffix-ment-ing-ly

Word: Total (Adjective)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdverb
 totalitytotaltotally
Suffix-ity-ly

Word: Gradually (Adverb)

Part of SpeechNounVerbAdjective
 gradegradegradual
Suffix-al