Grammar, Sentence

Synthesis of Sentences English Grammar

by VIDYANAND

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What is Synthesis of Sentences?

Synthesis of sentences is the combination of many simple sentences into one new sentence. This new sentence can be simple, compound, or complex

Let us look at the chief ways of synthesizing sentences.  

Synthesis of Simple Sentences into a Single Simple Sentence

Using the Participle

  • The magician took pity on the mouse. He turned it into a cat.
  • Taking pity on the mouse, the magician turned it into a cat.
  • She gave up her situation. She was not happy with the compensation.
  • Not satisfied with her compensation, she gave up the situation. 
  • I was walking along the street one day. I saw a dead rat.
  • Walking along the street one day, I saw a dead rat.
  • I have told you all the facts. I have nothing more to say. I will sit down.
  • Having told you the facts and having nothing more to say, I will sit down. 

Using Noun or a Phrase in Apposition

  • His daughter received a job offer in Europe. She was a bright child.
  • His daughter, a bright child, received a job offer in Europe.
  • The man was extremely wealthy. He supported his nephew’s education in London.
  • The boy’s uncle, an extremely wealthy man, supported his education in London.
  • The boys represented their college at the conference. They were a group of historians.
  • The boys, a group of historians, represented their college at the conference.
  • Qin Shi Huangdi built the Great Wall of China. This is a magnificent structure. He was a great king.
  • The Great Wall of China, a magnificent structure was built by Qin Shi Huangdi, a great king.

OR

  • Qin Shi Huangdi, a great king built the Great Wall of China, a magnificent structure.

Using Preposition with a Noun or a Gerund

  • The weather is pleasant. It is a little cold however.
  • The weather is pleasant in spite of it being a little cold.
  • It rained hard. The streets were flooded.
  • The streets were flooded by the heavy rain.
  • He entered the room with his coat on. His behaviour surprised me. 
  • To my surprise he entered the room with his coat on.                                                                           
  • He took the matter in his own hands. He was not justified in doing so.
  • He was not justified in taking the matter in his own hands.

Using Nominative Absolute Construction

Nominative Absolute Construction is made by converting the verb phrase in one sentence to the ‘Having + past participle’ form thus using it as the post modifier to the noun phrase in the new sentence. 
  • The reinforcements were called. The mob had grown wild.
  • The mob having grown wild the reinforcements were called.
  • The insects woke up at sunset. The garden came alive with their sounds.
  • The insects having woken up at sunset the garden came alive with their sounds.
  • The mischief maker was caught. He was punished.
  • His mischief maker having been caught was punished.
  • The manager’s position was vacant. No suitable candidate applied. The company was in trouble.
  • No suitable candidate having applied the manager’s vacant position left the company in trouble.

Using the Infinitive 

  1. The thieves drew out their guns. They scared the guards away.
  2. The thieves drew out their guns to scare the guards away.
  • The crew met on the deck at night. They planned a rebellion against their captain.
  • The crew met on the deck at night to plan a rebellion against their captain.
  • He is a very honest man. This will not indulge in such practices.
  • He is too honest to indulge in such practices.
  • He bought a snake. It scared people. It kept people away from his mansion.
  • He bought a snake to scare people and to keep them away from his mansion.

Using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase

  • They deserved to succeed. He failed.
  • He failed undeservedly.
  • He has succeeded. His success is beyond my expectation.
  • He has succeeded unexpectedly.
  • He was not at the meeting. His absence was unavoidable.
  • He was unavoidably absent at the meeting.
  • I have read Tagore. It has profited me greatly.
  • I have read Tagore to my great profit.

Synthesis of Simple Sentences into a Compound Sentence

Nominative Absolute Construction is made by converting the verb phrase in one sentence to the ‘Having + past participle’ form thus using it as the post modifier to the noun phrase in the new sentence. 

Synthesis of sentences into a Compound Sentence using Cumulative conjunctions

Cumulative conjunctions are the ones that are used to add one statement to the other.

and, both…and, as well as, not only…but also
  • He worked hard every day. He finally achieved his dreams.
  • He worked every day and finally achieved his dreams.
  • The generous old lady invited the rag picker into her inn. She gave him some soup and bread.
  • The generous old lady not only invited the ragpicker into her inn but also gave him some soup and bread.
  • He is impatient. He is rude.
  • He is both impatient and rude.  
  • They broke the door. They rescued the children.
  • They broke the door as well as rescued the children. 

Synthesis of sentences into a compound sentence using adversative conjunctions

Adversative conjunctions are those that express opposition or contrast between two statements.

but, still, yet, whereas, while
  • The bus was wrecked. No one was hurt.
  • The bus was wrecked but no one was hurt.
  • We must hurry up. We will miss the beginning of the show.
  • We must hurry up or we will miss the beginning of the show.
  • It was a stormy night. We ventured out. 
  • It was a stormy night yet we ventured out. 
  • She is well-behaved. Her sister is impolite.
  • She is well-behaved whereas her sister is impolite.  
  • The woman slogged in the fields. The man slept through the day. 
  • The woman slogged in the fields while the man slept through the day. 

Synthesis of sentences into a compound sentence using alternative conjunctions

Alternative conjunctions, also known as disjunctive conjunctions, are those that present two alternatives. 

or, either…or, neither…nor, neither, nor, otherwise, else
  • We must hurry up. We will miss the beginning of the show.
  • We must hurry up or we will miss the beginning of the show.
  • They are clueless. They pretend to be innocent. 
  • They are either clueless or they pretend to be innocent. 
  • He will not borrow money. He will not steal money. 
  • He will neither borrow nor steal money. 
  • We must eat the cake today. It will go bad tomorrow. 
  • We must eat the cake today otherwise it will go bad tomorrow. 

Synthesis of sentences into a compound sentence using Illative Conjunctions

Illative conjunctions are those that express inference from another statement or fact.

for, so, therefore
  • We could not see. It was very dark.
  • We could not see for it was very dark. 
  • It is raining heavily. I will take a ride home. 
  • It is raining heavily so I will take a ride home. 
  • The house was burgled. The police sealed it. 
  • The house was burgled therefore the police sealed it.  

Synthesis of Simple Sentences into a Complex Sentence

A complex sentence is formed using subordinating conjunctions to form Adverbial, Adjective (Relative) clauses, or Noun clauses.

Using a Noun Clause

  • They said something. I did not hear it.
  • I did not hear what he said.
  • Something may be worth doing. It is only worth doing well.
  • What is worth doing is worth doing well.
  • He may be innocent. I don’t know.
  • I don’t know whether he is innocent.

Using an Adjective (Relative) Clause

  • You put it somewhere. Show me the place.
  • Show me the place where you put it.
  • The man’s companion was a young lad. His name was Shyam. They met in Banaras.
  • The man’s companion was a young lad named Shyam whom he met in Banaras.
  • The animals saw themselves as superior beings. They despised the barbaric humans.
  • The animals who saw themselves as superior beings despised the barbaric humans. 

Using an Adverb Clause

  • Miss Wilkins died in 1950. Her son thereafter became the owner of the estate.
  • When Miss Wilkins died in 1950, became the owner of the estate.
  • He finished first. He began late.
  • He finished first though he began late.
  • She was quite tired. She could scarcely stand.
  • She was so tired that she could scarcely stand.  
  • The master distrusted his servants. They had been serving the family for years.
  • The master distrusted his servants though they had been serving the family for years.

Summary

Simple sentences can be combined into a single simple sentence by 

  • Using the Participle
  • Using Noun or a Phrase in apposition
  • Using Preposition with a Noun or a Gerund
  • Using Nominative Absolute Construction
  • Using the Infinitive 
  • Using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase 

Simple sentences can be combined into a compound sentence by using

  • Cumulative conjunctions
  • Adversative conjunctions
  • Alternative conjunctions
  • Illative Conjunctions

Simple sentences can be combined into a complex sentence by using

  • Noun Clause
  • Adjective (Relative) Clause
  • Adverb Clause