Quick Notes of Acids-Bases Theory

The purpose of my Theory is finding acids and bases with their strength in organic and inorganic fields of chemistry. This Theory explains characteristics, properties, relation, structure, strength, neutralisation of acids-bases.

And also it explains classification of acidbases like covalent acid bonds, dative acid bonds, and ionic base bonds. Salt is defined as additional product formed by neutralisation. Strength of acids and bases defined in terms of electronegativity and electropositivity of atoms or molecules.

INTRODUCTION

Acids-bases Theory which description of acids and bases. This theory was based on electrostatic force in between atoms or molecules. And it is updated from limitations of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories. 

Arrhenius Theory was proposed by Arrhenius in 1887 based on ionisation concept. He failed to explain some acidic and basic nature which doesn’t have H+ and OH ions of molecules such that CO2, CaO…..etc. 

Other scientists proposed bronsted-lowry theory based on proton transfer in atoms. He fails to explain the acidic nature of some gases like CO2, SO2…..etc and also basic nature of CaO, BaO…etc. 

Lewis theory proposed by Lewis scientist based on transfer of pair electrons in acid and bases. He fails to explain the strength, neutralisation, s-p overlap of acid and bases.

This theory covers all fields in chemistry. It explains inorganic and organic acids-bases, strength, salt formed by neutralisation. It provides the structure of acids and bases in inorganic compounds. It gives easy to remember which are acids and bases by using structure of acids and bases. 

ACIDS-BASES THEORY

INTRODUCTION

This theory defined characteristics, relation, properties of acids and bases based on Rebert Boyle properties and my experimental values. Properties, characteristics, relation of acid and bases mentioned as below. 

Properties of acids and bases:

Acids:

  • These turn blue litmus to red.
  • These are sour to taste.
  • These react with bases t form salts.  These are corrosive in nature.

Bases:

  • These turn red litmus to blue.
  • These are bitter to taste.
  • These react with acids to from salts.
  • These are soapy to touch.

Relation between acids and bases

Consider acids is A, bases is B, Neutralisation is 0.

  • If A + B = 0, then salts are formed due to electronegativity of acids equal to electropositivity of bases.
  • If A + B < 0, then acids are formed due to electronegativity of acids more than electropositivity of bases.
  • If A + B > 0, then bases are formed due to electronegativity of acids less than electropositivity of bases.

Characteristics of acids and bases

Acids:

  • Electronegativity of acids more than Electropositivity of bases reacts and forms dative acid bonds.  
  • Strength of acids decreases by dilution.        Reacts with metal to form hydrogen gas.
  • Acids don’t react itself.
  • It maintains heat
  • Increases the H+ concentration in water.     Turns blue litmus indicator red.

Bases: 

  • Electronegativity of acids more than Electropositivity of bases reacts and forms ionic base bonds.  
  • Strength of acids decreases by dilution.  
  • Increases the OH- concentration in water.
  • It maintains cool  
  • Turns red litmus indicator blue.
  • pH > 7.

ACIDS

Definition:

Chemical substances which are accept required valency electrons due to electronegativity of gases are called   “Acids”. 

Structure:

General structure of acid bonds in inorganic compounds is

sx.ly.gz  +  Gk ➜ Acid bonds 

Where sx.ly.gis a solid, liquids, and gases are in I reactant 

Gk is gases are in II reactant of equation.

General structure of acid bonds in organic compounds is 

-C-COOH ➜ Acid bonds

Examples:

  • C  +  O2  ➜  CO2                    
  • H  +  Cl   ➜  HCl
  • H  +  SO42 ➜ SO42-

HSO4Explanation: 

Acids are generally formed by solids and gases with accepting required valency electrons. It may be sharing or transferring electrons from one to other substance. Sx.ly.gz  molecules having valency electrons containing cations are involves to donating electrons to Gases molecules.

Gases are mostly important to formation of Acidic Bonds. Such gases like H, N, O, F, Cl without these gases there is no formation of Acidic bonds. Gases accept electrons from sx.ly.gz . So gases are called as “Acceptors”.

      I  reactant contains sx.ly.gz   which have “cations” and II reactant contains only gases which “anions”  And finally these two Reactants combined to from “Acids”.

Classification of Acids

Acids are classified into three types.

They are: 

  • Ionic Acid bonds
  • Covalent Acids bonds
  • Organic Acid bonds.

Ionic acid bonds

Acids which are formed by transfers of required valency electrons to Gases (II reactant) are called as “Ionic Acid bonds”.

Note: There is no formation of acidic bonds by transferring required valency electrons because 99% of acids are formed by only sharing of electrons in between atoms or molecules 

Covalent acid bonds

Acids formed by sharing of required electrons to Gases (II reactant) are called “Covalent Acids bonds”.

Examples

HCl, CO2, H2SO4, NH3-BF3, HSO4……..etc.

Explanation

            Sharing of required electrons to Gases (II reactant), Then the product gives covalent compounds which have Acidic Nature. Covalent Acids bonds are divided into three types. They are s-p overlap acid bond, double & triple acid bonds, and dative acid bonds.

  S-p overlap acid bonds: These acids bonds are formed by sharing electrons in between s and p shell of atoms.

Examples

HCl, ……….etc

Double & triple acid bonds: These acids bonds are formed by sharing two or three electrons in between two atoms.

Examples

H2SO4, CO2 ……………etc. 

 Dative acid bonds: Theseacids bonds are formed by sharing lone pair of electrons in between acidic nature molecule and basic nature molecule.

Examples

NF3-BF3, PH3-BF3 ……………etc.                            

Note: In dative acid bonds, require electrons accepts by acidic nature of molecule. So we consider as Dative acid bonds.  

Organic acid bonds

Acids are formed by organic compounds are called “Organic Acid bonds”.

Examples

CH3COOH, HCOOH …………………etc.

Explanation

Organic compounds which contains –C-COOH structure Then the product contain –COOH at last of molecule(Right side of molecules)  is indicates acidic nature of molecules. 

BASES

Definition:

Chemical substances which are donates required valency electrons due to electropositivity of solids are called   “Bases”.

Structure

General structure of basic bonds in inorganic compounds is 

Sk  + sx.ly.g ➜ base

Where Sk is a solids are in I  reactant,  sx.ly.gis a solids, liquids, and gases are in II reactant.

General structure of basic bonds in organic compounds is -C- ……..etc, except -COOH                         

 Examples

NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3, N2O5, ………………etc.

Explanation

Bases are generally formed by solids and gases, by donating required valency electrons. It may be sharing or transferring electrons from one to other substances. Gases molecules having valency electrons containing (anions) are involve accepting electrons from solid molecules.

Solid are mostly important to formation of basic bonds. Such solids are most important to formation of base bonds . Such solids like Na+, Mg+2, Fe+2, Fe+3………….etc without these solids there is no formation of basic bonds.

In chemical equation, I reactant contains only solid which have “cations” and II reactant contains sx.ly.gwhich have “anions” And finally I and II reactants combined to form the “base” component.

Classification of Bases:

The bases are classification of three types. 

They are 

  • Ionic base bonds,
  • Covalent base bonds,
  • Organic base bonds.

Ionic base bonds

Bases are formed by transferring (donate) required valency electrons from solids (I reactant) are called “Ionic base bonds”.

Examples

NaOH, KOH, MgO………etc

Explanation

Transferring of required electrons from solids (I reactant), then the product gives Ionic base compound.

For example

Consider NaOH molecule formed by reaction of Na+ ions and OH ions in between electrons transfers from sodium (Na+) to hydroxyl (OH ) and forms NaOH. So this process is called as “Ionic base bond”.

Na+    +   OH  ➜  NaOH

Covalent base bonds:

Bases are formed by sharing (Donates) of required valency electrons from solids are called “Covalent base bonds”.

Note: There is no formation of basic bond by sharing required valency electrons because 99% of bases are formed by only transfer of electrons in between atoms or molecules

2.3.3 Organic base bonds:

Bases are formed by organic compounds are called “Organic Bases bonds”.

Examples

CH4, C2H6, C3H8…………..etc.

 Explanation

Organic compounds which contain Hydrocarbon atom i.e. Alkynes and Alkenes. Then the product contains “C” at first atom of molecule (left side molecule) are shows it’s has a Base Nature.

examples 

  • CH4  ➜ Methane
  • C3H6 ➜  Propane         

Consider, above example having carbon atoms at left side molecules it shows base nature of Organic compounds.

NEURALISATION

The reaction between acid which having covalent acidic nature and base which having ionic base nature to forms salt and liquids and gases are called “Neutralisation”.   

Examples

  • 6CO2      +  12H2O  ➜ C6H12O6   +  6H2O  +  6O2
  • 2HCl     +  MgO  ➜ MgCl2     +  H2O
  • 2HNO3  +  2AgO  ➜ 2AgNO + H2O2

Consider, above the examples gives additional products formed by acid and base reactions such that salt, liquids, and Gases.

SALT

The additional product formed by reaction of acid and base are called “Salt”

Examples

NaCl, KCl, AgNO3………………etc.

Explanation

In chemical equation, Acids and Bases are reacts to forms one additional product which have neutral condition is known as “Salt”.

For example

NaCl (sodium chloride) 

  • HCl   +   NaOH  ➜   NaCl   + H2O

AgNO3 (sliver Nitrate)  

  • 2HNO3   + 2AgO ➜ 2AgNO3    +   H2O2  

KCl (potassium chloride)

  • HCl   +   KOH  ➜  KCl   + H2O    

STRENGTH OF ACIDS

Strong acids

Acids which have more electronegativity charge in between atoms or molecules are known as “Strong acids”.

Examples

H2SO4, HCl …etc.

Weak acids

Acids which have less electronegativity charge in between atoms or molecules are known as “Weak acids”.

Examples

CH3COOH, H2CO3……………..etc.

STRENGTH OF BASES

Strong bases

Bases which have more electropositive charge in between atoms or molecules are known as “Strong bases”.

Examples

NaOH, KOH…etc.

Weak bases

Bases which have less electropositive charge in between atoms or molecules are known as   “Weak bases”.

Examples

NH4OH, Mg(OH)2………………etc.

Summary

The result of this research paper shows that the strength and structure of acids and bases to find easy and calculate their strength. We can find out the acids and bases easy by using formula and strength will be calculated whether it is strong or weak. By using this theory we have so many advantages like easy to remember, easy to calculate acids and bases strengths, easy to learn and understand this theory

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