Introduction of Bootstrap

What is Bootstrap?

  • Bootstrap is a free front-end framework for faster and easier web development.
  • Bootstrap includes HTML and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, tables, navigation, modals, image carousels, and many others, as well as optional JavaScript plugins.
  • Bootstrap also gives you the ability to easily create responsive designs.

What is Responsive Web Design?

Responsive web design is about creating websites that automatically adjust themselves to look good on all devices, from small phones to large desktops.

Bootstrap 3 vs. Bootstrap 4

Bootstrap 4 is the newest version of Bootstrap; with new components, faster stylesheet and more responsiveness.

Bootstrap 4 supports the latest, stable releases of all major browsers and platforms. However, Internet Explorer 9 and down is not supported.

If you require IE8-9 support, use Bootstrap 3. It is the most stable version of Bootstrap, and it is still supported by the team for critical bug fixes and documentation changes. However, no new features will be added to it.

Dropped icon support: Bootstrap 4 does not support BS3 Glyphicons. Use Font-Awesome or other icon libraries instead.

Why Use Bootstrap?

Advantages of Bootstrap:

1. Easy to use: Anybody with just basic knowledge of HTML and CSS can start using Bootstrap

2. Responsive features: Bootstrap’s responsive CSS adjusts to phones, tablets, and desktops

3. Mobile-first approach: In Bootstrap, mobile-first styles are part of the core framework

4. Browser compatibility: Bootstrap 4 is compatible with all modern browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer 10+, Edge, Safari, and Opera)

Where to Get Bootstrap 4?

There are two ways to start using Bootstrap 4 on your own web site.

You can:

  • Include Bootstrap 4 from a CDN
  • Download Bootstrap 4 from getbootstrap.com

Create First Web Page With Bootstrap 4

1. Add the HTML5 doctype

Bootstrap 4 uses HTML elements and CSS properties that require the HTML5 doctype.

Always include the HTML5 doctype at the beginning of the page, along with the lang attribute and the correct character set:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8"> 
  </head>
</html>

2. Bootstrap 4 is mobile-first

Bootstrap 4 is designed to be responsive to mobile devices. Mobile-first styles are part of the core framework.

To ensure proper rendering and touch zooming, add the following <meta> tag inside the <head> element:

<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">

The width=device-width part sets the width of the page to follow the screen-width of the device (which will vary depending on the device).

The initial-scale=1 part sets the initial zoom level when the page is first loaded by the browser.

3. Containers

Bootstrap 4 also requires a containing element to wrap site contents.

There are two container classes to choose from:

  1. The .container class provides a responsive fixed width container
  2. The .container-fluid class provides a full width container, spanning the entire width of the viewport
  • container
  • container-fluid

Two Basic Bootstrap 4 Pages

The following example shows the code for a basic Bootstrap 4 page (with a responsive fixed width container):

Container Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <title>Bootstrap 4 Example</title>
  <meta charset="utf-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
  <link rel="stylesheet"href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.2.1/css/bootstrap.min.css">
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.3.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
  <scriptsrc="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/popper.js/1.14.6/umd/popper.min.js"></script>
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.2.1/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
</head>
<body>

<div class="container">
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>
  <p>This is some text.</p> 
</div>

</body>
</html>

The following example shows the code for a basic Bootstrap 4 page (with a full width container):

Container Fluid Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <title>Bootstrap 4 Example</title>
  <meta charset="utf-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
  <link rel="stylesheet"href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.2.1/css/bootstrap.min.css">
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.3.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
  <scriptsrc="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/popper.js/1.14.6/umd/popper.min.js"></script>
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.2.1/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
</head>
<body>

<div class="container-fluid">
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>
  <p>This is some text.</p> 
</div>

</body>
</html>

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