Exchange of Information
The first stage of any negotiation is the exchange of information. Both parties convey their views on the problems in a non-confronting manner. The trick here is to decide what to show and what to hide.
The information you share with your counterparts will familiarize themselves with a certain fraction of your position. However, it would be like cutting the branch you are sitting on, if you give away too much information.
It is a wise move to have a little chat with the other counterparts in the negotiation, before revealing your cards. This will set a positive vibe. You might find some things in common, such as likes and dislikes between you and the others.
If you jump straight into negotiating, then others might think you to be hasty and aggressive. Some people may actually desire negotiating in this style. However, an informal conversation would come in handy when it comes to negotiations.
Of course, in case of introductions and preliminaries, it is advisable to stick to formality. The best way to introduce yourself is to present yourself in a relaxed and friendly manner with some formal restraint. It would be too foolish of you if you seem to try to bleed your opponent dry. This sort of an approach will make them defensive, which will go against the negotiation.
Information sharing describes the exchange of data between various organizations, people and technologies. There are several types of information sharing:
- Information shared by individuals (such as a video shared on Facebook or YouTube)
- Information shared by organizations (such as the RSS feed of an online weather report)
- Information shared between firmware/software (such as the IP addresses of available network nodes or the availability of disk space)
The advent of wide distributed networks, intranets, cross-platform compatibility, application porting and standardization of IP protocols have all facilitated the huge growth in global information sharing.
When it comes to personal information however, no matter how easy it is to port the actual data, there are laws in most countries prohibiting the sharing of personal data without explicit permission being granted.
In the U.S. and Europe it is a criminal offense to share any personal data about anyone without such explicit permission. There is plenty of other information sharing that does not fall under the law and information sharing is increasing as more networks and organizations connect and information becomes easier to share across the internet.
Digital preservation is the active safekeeping of digitally stored information. As a part of the formalized efforts of library and archival sciences, digital preservation includes the practices required to ensure that information is safe from medium failures as well as software and hardware obsolescence.
In the digital age, preserving information, entertainment and other material involves not only backing up desired content but also caring for and maintaining the storage media upon which the data is stored. Digital preservation is essential to modern history, not least because much information is not stored in any type of hard copy.
Network protection – methods for protecting your network and data
Networks are the essential system of information technology. All communication between computer systems and terminals takes place in local (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Various information and resources are exchanged on a daily basis.
The individual nodes in the network are connected to each other via cables, radio connections, dial-up or leased lines. Precisely these need special protection. Network Protection means any activity to protect against manipulation of your network and your data.
This includes hardware and software technologies as well as corresponding security strategies. This primarily includes first and foremost preventing intrusion into the network in order to prevent the subsequent spread and further damage to the network. Several types of network protection shall be mentioned here:
- Antivirus software
- Application security
- Behavioral analysis
- Avoidance of data loss
- Firewalls (web application firewalls)
- Mobile Security
- Browser/Web Security
Computer-communication networks allow the sharing of specialized computer resources such as data bases, programs, and hardware. Such a network consists of both the computer resources and a communications system interconnecting them and allowing their full utilization to be achieved.
Computer Hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.
By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is “hard” or rigid with respect to changes or modifications; whereas software is “soft” because it is easy to update or change.
Intermediate between software and hardware is “firmware“, which is software that is strongly coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and thus the most difficult to change but also among the most stable with respect to consistency of interface.
The progression from levels of “hardness” to “softness” in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of abstraction in computing. Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware components.