HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

What is HTML?

HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web pages.

  • HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language
  • HTML describes the structure of Web pages using markup
  • HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages
  • HTML elements are represented by tags
  • HTML tags label pieces of content such as “heading”, “paragraph”, “table”, and so on
  • Browsers do not display the HTML tags but use them to render the content of the page

Structure of HTML

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Page Title</title>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>
  • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines this document to be HTML5
  • The <html> element is the root element of an HTML page
  • The <head> element contains meta information about the document
  • The <title> element specifies a title for the document
  • The <body> element contains the visible page content

HTML Versions

Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML:

VersionYear
HTML1991
HTML 2.01995
HTML 3.21997
HTML 4.011999
XHTML2000
HTML52014

There are many differences between HTML and HTML5 which are discussed below:

HTMLHTML5
It didn’t support audio and video without the use of flash player support.It supports audio and video controls with the use of <audio> and <video> tags.
It uses cookies to store temporary data.It uses SQL databases and application cache to store offline data.
Does not allow JavaScript to run in the browser.Allows JavaScript to run in background. This is possible due to JS Web worker API in HTML5.
Vector graphics is possible in HTML with the help of various technologies such as VML, Silver-light, Flash, etc.Vector graphics is additionally an integral a part of HTML5 like SVG and canvas.
It does not allow drag and drop effects.It allows drag and drop effects.
Not possible to draw shapes like circle, rectangle, triangle etc.HTML5 allows to draw shapes like circle, rectangle, triangle etc.
It works with all old browsers.It supported by all new browser like Firefox, Mozilla, Chrome, Safari, etc.
Older version of HTML are less mobile-friendly.HTML5 language is more mobile-friendly.
Doctype declaration is too long and complicated.Doctype declaration is quite simple and easy.
Elements like nav, header were not present.New element for web structure like nav, header, footer etc.
Character encoding is long and complicated.Character encoding is simple and easy.
It is almost impossible to get true GeoLocation of user with the help of browser.One can track the GeoLocation of a user easily by using JS GeoLocation API.
It can not handle inaccurate syntax.It is capable of handling inaccurate syntax.
Attributes like charset, async and ping are absent in HTML.Attributes of charset, async and ping are a part of HTML 5.

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