What are Finite Verbs and Non-finite Verbs?
A finite verb is a form of a verb which has a subject and a tense.
Hazel tripped on a piece of wire.
- Verb: tripped
- Subject: Hazel
- Tense: simple past tense
Chandu will be late on the first day of work.
- Verb: will be
- Subject: Chandu
- Tense: simple future tense
Meena has arrived in Delhi.
- Verb: has arrived
- Subject: Meena
- Tense: present perfect tense
A non-finite verb is a form of verb which has no subject and no tense.
- Reading is a hobby I enjoy the most.
- The teacher made Samantha read the book.
- Krish is repairing the sewing machine.
- The serrated blade is used to cut bread.
Types of Non-finite Verbs
There are three types of non-finite verbs:
Gerunds are verbs which end in ‘-ing’ but function like nouns in a sentence. They can play the role of a subject as well as an object.
- Talking is discouraged in this camp.
- Marushka took up singing.
- Nagging is something I cannot tolerate.
- I love sleeping till late in the evening.
- We forbid you from cheating.
Participles are verbs which function as adjectives.
Types of participles
Past participles (end in ‘-en’ or ‘-ed’)
Present participles (end in ‘-ing’)
- The reading glasses were kept on the dining table.
- The host served frozen desserts to the guests.
- Priya bought a brand new sewing machine.
- Harita and Vrinda sold baked goods at the carnival.
A verb form where the word ‘to’ is followed by a simple form of a verb is known as an infinitive.
Sometimes, ‘to’ is implied or absent in an infinitive.
An infinitive is used to show the purpose or function of a particular action or thing.
- Mayuri is going to the market to buy some vegetables.
- I need some tools to fix our creaky doors.
- The teachers made us read the book out aloud.
- Gertrude is going to see a movie this weekend.